LEAP

Local Government Energy Assurance Planning

Publications


Energy Assurance for Local Government Elected & Appointed Officials
Energy Assurance for Local Government Elected and Appointed Public Officials

Energy Assurance (EA) is gaining traction because of its far-reaching implications to local government in the arenas of economic vitality, health, safety, communications and continuity of government operations.

Most, if not all, essential community services are highly dependent on energy supplies. To date, local governments have successfully prepared themselves for responding to emergencies, but have spent very little time preparing specifically for emergencies that impact the energy that flows into and through their communities.

PTI offers this document to help you build EA champions among your elected and appointed officials.

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Energy and Water for Local Governments

The uses of energy and water are interdependently linked: water is used for many aspects of energy generation, and energy is required to pump and treat water.

This document serves to help local governments better understand the energy/water nexus, particularly as it affects energy assurance planning. It examines how water is used in the energy sector and how energy is used by the water sector, and discusses water scarcity issues.

Additional sections identify ways that local governments can plan for the water needs of the energy sector, and and take water and energy efficiency measures.

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Financing Options and Funding Opportunities to Support Local Government Energy Assurance Planning

This paper was developed in response to an increase in the number of events that have resulted in the loss or reduction of local government essential functions and services due to energy disruptions.

Although energy assurance is recognized as important by a large number of local governments, an impediment to action has been "How do we pay for it?" This guide was developed to help you understand the financing options and funding opportunities that can underwrite energy assurance Capital Projects and Actions.

The intended audiences for this document are local government energy officials and energy assurance managers, as well as those involved in maintaining and operating local government systems that depend on energy availability such as IT officials and emergency response professionals. Local policy makers, appointed and elected officials may also find this guide useful due to their direct accountability to taxpayers and their responsibility to serve the public.

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Renewable Energy and Energy Assurance Planning for Local Governments

Renewable energy can play a significant role in energy assurance planning by helping to ensure energy continuity, stabilize energy costs, and offset supply disruptions.

Advancements in renewable energy technologies, such as solar photovoltaic and wind turbines, have created unprecedented opportunities for local governments to incorporate renewables into their energy portfolios.

By harnessing renewable energy resources, local governments build energy resilience and reduce reliance upon fossil fuels. Renewable energy systems can also provide backup power for critical infrastructure facilities during an energy emergency.

This LEAP publication from PTI outlines the potential role of renewables in local government energy assurance planning and discusses the benefits, risks, and implementation challenges of various renewable energy technologies.

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Developing and Maintaining Emergency Operations Plans

This guide from the Federal Emergency Management Agency promotes a common understanding of the fundamentals of planning and decisionmaking to help emergency planners examine a hazard and produce integrated, coordinated and synchronized plans.

This guide provides emergency and homeland security managers and other emergency services personnel with FEMA's recommendations on how to address the entire planning process — from forming a planning team, through writing and maintaining the plan, to executing the plan.

It also encourages emergency and homeland security managers to follow a process that addresses all of the hazards and threats that might impact their jurisdiction through a suite of operations plans (OPLANs) connected to a single, integrated concept plan.

Get the document at this link.


Introduction to Energy Infrastructure Interdependencies

The infrastructure of a local community consists of many elements, including electricity transmission lines and distribution systems, gas pipelines and storage facilities, water and sewer systems, communication lines, transportation systems, medical and emergency facilities, telephone switching stations, and cell towers.

A disruption in any one asset or system — such as the electricity delivery system — could affect the infrastructure of many other critical systems and, in turn, could disrupt numerous essential services, including those that facilitate infrastructure repair and restoration.

When developing energy assurance plans, local governments will want to identify energy interdependencies at the local, State, regional, and national levels and examine how they may affect local critical infrastructures. This publication will support those efforts.

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Cybersecurity Concerns for LEAP Planning

Because cyber security concerns are usually handled by Internet-focused industries and IT departments, local governments may not typically consider vulnerabilities of computer systems to unauthorized use or attack.

However, with the increased use of interconnected, Internet-based technology in the energy industry, and with recent attempts to harm energy sector control systems, cyber security is an increasing concern for energy assurance planners.

To mitigate the risk of cyber attack, it is necessary to harden computer and information systems by making them less vulnerable to external influences. This 15-page LEAP guidance document from PTI outlines cybersecurity standards, practices and concerns relevant to local energy assurance.

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The Role of Amateur Radio in Local Government Energy Assurance

Amateur radio operators ("hams") comprise a resilient, reliable option for mitigating communication losses during emergencies, including energy emergencies, particularly when telephone networks are damaged or jammed with calls.

This PTI white paper introduces the Amateur Radio Service, its purpose, organization and regulation. It summarizes recent FCC policy on utilizing radio amateurs in disaster drills, and recommends that public agencies form relationships with local radio groups for volunteer communications support.

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Energy 101: Key Energy Concepts for Local Governments

Energy 101: Key Energy Concepts for Local Governments is now available at no charge. It provides an overview of energy resources and describes how various forms of energy are obtained, distributed and used within and outside jurisdictions.

This publication will help answer questions you may have in creating your energy assurance plan.

The PDF was produced by PTI's Local Government Energy Assurance Planning (LEAP) program with the support of the Dept. of Energy.

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Smart Grid 101 for Local Governments

Smart Grid 101 for Local Governments introduces the electrical distribution system, and explains how the smart grid will:

Communicate price variations directly to intelligent devices inside homes and businesses; Help educate consumers on the environmental impacts of their energy consumption; Pave the way for plug-in electric vehicles; and help utilities respond to electric outages and even implement self-healing systems that reroute power around trouble spots.

The 19-page illustrated PDF was produced by PTI and its Local Government Energy Assurance Planning (LEAP) program with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy.

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National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) and Energy Sector Plan

The National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) provides a coordinated approach to critical infrastructure and key resources (CI/KR) protection roles and responsibilities for governmental agencies and private sector security partners.

The Energy Sector-Specific Plan (SSP), an annex to the NIPP, provides a comprehensive risk management framework that defines critical infrastructure protection roles and responsibilities for government, private industry and other energy sector partners.

Get the document at this link.


Smart Grid and Cyber Security for Energy Assurance

Energy Assurance for state and local governments is a major element of improving the Nation's energy sector resiliency. It involves preparation and planning, mitigation and response, education and outreach.

As smart grid investments and initiatives increase, cyber security, which has always been a key component of energy assurance, will only become more crucial. Because smart grid relies on information communication, cyber vulnerabilities can equate to smart grid vulnerabilities, which in turn lead to vulnerabilities in the entire energy supply system.

NASEO's new report Smart Grid and Cyber Security for Energy Assurance provides guidance that states can consider and adapt to meet their needs and level of Smart Grid deployment.

It also suggests a process that can be used to build in-house capacity to address cyber security threats and risks in the energy sector. The report was written with the assistance of DOE/OE, the Electric Power Research Institute and National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, Critical Infrastructure Committee.

Get the document at this link.


Enabling States and Localities to Improve Energy Assurance and Resiliency Planning

Our communities depend on a secure, reliable energy infrastructure that is also resilient. At the same time, our Nation's energy infrastructure — a complex network of interconnected producers, pipelines, transmission and distribution lines, electricity substations, operational and business processes and supply chains — may be vulnerable to a variety of hazards.

Stretching across jurisdictions and States to national borders, this "system of systems" is subject to a range of disruptions, from destructive weather to possible deliberate attacks. Although it is the job of the nation's energy service providers to keep energy flowing, it is also the responsibility of state and local officials to work toward energy assurance and resiliency.

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The Smart Grid Library

Although the Smart Grid should be of interest to anyone who has ever flipped on a light switch, the U.S. Department of Energy has identified six stakeholder groups whose active involvement is required to realize a smarter grid.

These are Utilities, Environmental Groups, Technology Providers, Regulators, Policymakers and Consumer Advocates. In addition to The Smart Grid: An Introduction, DOE has recently supported the publication of six Smart Grid stakeholder books, one dedicated to each of these groups.

The Smart Grid: An Introduction – How a Smarter Grid Works as an Enabling Engine

Consumer Advocates – What the Smart Grid Means to Americans

Environmental Groups – How the Smart Grid Promotes a Greener Future

Policymakers – What a Smart Grid Means to Our Nation’s Future

Regulators – What the Smart Grid Means to You and the People You Represent

Technology Providers – What the Smart Grid Means to America’s Future

Utilities – What the Smart Grid Means to You and the People You Serve

You can also order free printed copies of these Smart Grid books at this link.


State Energy Assurance Plan Updates

These updates reflect State Energy Assurance efforts completed or underway. By reviewing these updates LEAP cities may gain insight into state efforts and strengthen their own energy assurance planning efforts.

Visit State Energy Assurance Updates at this link.


Hardening and Resiliency: U.S. Energy Industry Response to Recent Hurricane Seasons

The DOE Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability has completed a study on the efforts industry have taken, since the 2005 and 2008 hurricane seasons, to harden their assets and/or implement changes to make their energy systems more resilient.

Get the document at this link.


Energy Assurance Daily

The Department of Energy's Energy Assurance Daily provides a summary of public information concerning current energy issues.

Published Monday through Friday to inform stakeholders of developments affecting energy systems, flows, and markets, it provides highlights of energy issues rather than a comprehensive coverage.

Energy Assurance Daily


Energy Assurance Planning Bulletins

The quarterly Energy Assurance Planning (EAP) Bulletin is a service of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability.

The Bulletin provides information on energy assurance planning resources, upcoming events, training and important deadlines.

Energy Assurance Planning Bulletins   |   New OE Reports and Materials


Southeast Petroleum Disruption and After-Action Workshop

On January 14 and 15, 2009 the Southeast Petroleum Disruption and After-Action Workshop was held to review the impacts to petroleum supply in the Southeast following Hurricanes Gustav and Ike.

The workshop was sponsored by the DOE Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability and the National Association of State Energy Officials.

An After-Action Final Report is now available that outlines the events of the Southeast Petroleum Supply disruption, identifies lessons learned, and provides specific recommendations to better prepare for and respond to future energy emergencies.

Get the document at this link.


State Energy Assurance Planning Framework

Prepared by the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO), the purpose of this framework is to assist states and provide guidance to locals in the design, development, and writing of the State Energy Assurance Plans.

Read more at this link.


Energy and Water Distribution Interdependency Issues

The Environmental Protection Agency National Homeland Security Research Center, the Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, and Public Technology Institute held a workshop in 2005 to identify best practices and lessons learned from previous crisis incidents that impacted both the energy and water infrastructures.

On September 18, 2003, Hurricane Isabel made landfall near Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, as a Category 2 storm with winds near 100 mph. Despite this fairly modest storm classification, over the next 24 hours Isabel caused unprecedented power outages (6.5 million customers) throughout the Mid-Atlantic region.

Exercise presentations and discussions focused on pre-emergency planning, emergency operation plan implementation, alternative water supply options, and energy and water-related best practices and policy-based options. Exercise participants reviewed actual occurrences from pre-landfall of Hurricane Isabel to several days into recovery and restoration, and actively discussed energy and water issues throughout this defined timeframe.

The workshop produced a report that provides recommendations for minimizing the effects of energy emergencies on drinking water distribution. The report (EPA 600/R-07/042, April 2007) was prepared by PTI and the Cadmus Group under EPA contract 68-C-02-069.

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Working with the Media During an Energy Emergency

Local governments play an important communications role during any emergency, and energy emergencies are no exception.

When energy delivery or availability is compromised, it is essential that the public be informed of the details and impact of the disruption.

Fostering a relationship with the media before, during, and after an energy emergency will help ensure that local governments can provide timely and accurate information about the emergency.

This document provides strategies that local governments can use for communicating effectively with the media, and for cultivating relationships with both the media and the public during energy-related emergencies.

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Governor's Guide to Energy Assurance

Roles and Responsibilities for Ensuring a Robust, Secure and Reliable Energy Infrastructure

The NGA Center for Best Practices (NGA Center) Governor's Guide to Energy Assurance aims to help governors ensure the security of the energy infrastructure in their states and respond effectively to energy emergencies.

As the heads of their states, governors ultimately are responsible for preparing for and responding to energy emergencies within their borders. However, governors' ability to ensure the security of the energy sector, which is largely privately owned, is limited by a lack of regulatory and statutory authority.

Though the private energy industry is primarily responsible for ensuring its own security, there are a number of steps governors can take to ensure their states are well positioned to respond to electrical blackouts, oil and gas shortages, and other energy-related crises.

The Governor's Guide to Energy Assurance provides governors and other state officials with an overview of the nation's energy sector and its general vulnerabilities; a discussion of the roles and responsibilities of state and federal governments and the private sector in planning for and responding to energy emergencies; and recommendations, based on state experiences, for ensuring a robust supply of energy and effectively responding to energy disruptions.

Get the document at this link.


2012 National Energy Assurance Planning Conference After-Action Report

On June 28–29, 2012, the Infrastructure Security and Energy Restoration (ISER) Division within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE), in coordination with the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO), held the National Energy Assurance Planning Conference at National Harbor, MD.

The conference culminated three years of DOE's ongoing American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) State and Local Energy Assurance Program (SLEAP). SLEAP seeks to develop new – or refine existing – energy assurance and emergency preparedness plans, which contribute to the resiliency of the energy sector by focusing on the entire energy supply system.

This conference served as an important venue for State and local energy assurance planners to share experiences, learn from other stakeholders, and obtain insights from experts in the field on how to improve energy assurance planning. It also provided opportunities to recap the results of the program, partake in a wide range of discussions on energy assurance issues, and share ideas for continued improvements and sustainability of energy assurance at national, State, and local levels.

Get this document from the Department of Energy at this link.

About PTI & LEAP

Public Technology Institute is a national, non-profit technology R&D organization established by and for city and county governments.

Local Government Energy Assurance Planning (LEAP) leverages PTI's 35 years of energy expertise to assist the cities selected under the LEAP FOA, DE-FOA-0000098, to implement and participate in U.S. Department of Energy assurance, reliability and security programs.

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